Ocean Finance

Background Articles on Economic Valuation


  • Balmford, A., A. Bruner, P. Cooper, R. Costanza, S. Farber, R. Green, M. Jenkins, P. Jefferiss, V. Jessamy, J. Madden, K. Munro, N. Myers, S. Naeem, J. Paavola, M. Rayment, A. Rosendo, J. Roughgarden, K. Trumper, and R. Turner. 2002. “Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature.” Science 297: 950-953.
  • Bateman, I. J., B.H. Day, S. Georgiou and I. Lake. 2006. “The aggregation of environmental benefit values: Welfare measures, distance decay and total WTP.” Ecological Economics 60 (2): 450-460.
  • Bockstael, N.E., A.M. Freeman, III, R.J. Kopp, P.R. Portney, and V.K. Smith. 2000. “On Measuring Economic Values for Nature.” Environmental Science and Technology 34: 1384-1389.
  • Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. O’Neill, J. Paruelo, R. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. “The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital.” Nature 387: 253-260.
  • Daily, G. et al. 2000. “The Value of Nature and the Nature of Value.” Science 289: 395-396.
  • Depondt, F., and E. Green. 2006. “Diving user fees and the financial sustainability of marine protected areas: Opportunities and impediments.” Ocean & Coastal Management 49: 188.
  • Dixon, J.A. 1993. “Economic benefits of marine protected areas.” Oceanus (Fall): 35-40.
  • Farber, S.C., R. Costanza, and M.A. Wilson. 2002. “Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services.” Ecological Economics 41: 375-392.
  • Jin, D., P. Hoagland, and T.M. Dalton. 2003. “Linking economics and ecological models for a marine ecosystem.” Ecological Economics, Elsevier 46: 367-385. Online at: http://www.elsevier.com/located/ecolecon.
  • Mardle, S., H. Glenn, and P. Wattage. 2006. “Socio-economic evaluation: a review.” In “Review of Marine Protected Areas as a Tool for Ecosystem Conservation and Fisheries Management.” PROTECT, World Package 2, February 2006, pp. 114-125.
  • Mathis, Fawcett, and Konda. 2003. “Valuing Nature: a survey of the non-market valuation literature.” Houston Advanced Research Center, prepared for the State of Texas. Online at: http://files.harc.edu/Projects/Nature/LiteratureSurveyGeoSpatial.pdf.
  • Molberg, F. and C. Folke. 1999. “Ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems.” Ecological Economics 29 (2): 215-233.
  • Munasinghe, M. and E. Lutz. 1993. “Environment economics and valuation in development decision-making.” Washington, DC: The World Bank, Environment Working Paper No. 51.
  • Pagiola, S. 2004. “How much is an ecosystem worth?” The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC, June 2004.
  • Pagiola, S., K. von Ritter, and J. Bishop. 2004. “Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation.” The World Bank in collaboration with IUCN. Online at: http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/pagiolaritterbishoplong.pdf.
  • Sanchirico, J.N. and J.E. Wilen. 2001. “A Bioeconomic Model of Marine Reserve Creation.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 42 (3): 257-276.
  • Spurgeon, J. 2006. “Time for a third-generation economics-based approach to coral management.” I. Cote and J. Reynolds, eds. “Coral Reef Conservation.” 362-390. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Spurgeon, J. 2001. “Valuation of Coral Reefs: The Next Ten Years.” Paper presented at “Economic Valuation and Policy Priorities for Sustainable Management of Coral Reefs,” an International Consultative Workshop. Organized by ICLARM (now WorldFish Center), in Penang, Malaysia.
  • Spurgeon, J. 1992. “Economic Valuation of Coral Reefs.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 24 (11): 529-536. Steiner A., S. McCormick, and I. Johnson. 2004. “How much is an ecosystem worth? Assessing the economic value of conservation.” IUCN, the Nature
  • Conservancy, the World Bank, October 2004, 33 p.
  • UK Environment Agency. 2004. “Overall Benefits of the Environment Programme for the Periodic Review of the Water Industry (PR04).” Online at: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/commondata/103599/obareport_897588.doc.
  • UNEP. 2006. “Marine and coastal ecosystems and human well-being: A synthesis report based on the findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.”
  • UNEP-WCMC. 2006. “In the front line: shoreline protection and other ecosystem services from mangroves and coral reefs.” Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC.
  • U.S. Department of Commerce, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration. 2006. “Socioeconomic Research and Monitoring Program in Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Recreation/Tourism in the Florida Keys: A 10-year Replication.” OMB CONTROL No. 0648. Silver Spring, MD: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration.

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